Общество физиологов растений России
02 Октябрь, 2018

Новости науки и практики // Октябрь 2018

Новости науки и практики // Октябрь 2018

Systemic signaling contributes to the unfolded protein response of the plant endoplasmic reticulum
In multicellular eukaryotes such as plants, non-cell autonomous UPR (unfolded protein response) signaling relies on the systemic movement of at least a UPR transcriptional modulator.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06289-9

Cell wall chemistry determines shoot Ca and Mg concentrations
White et al. present an original hypothesis to explain these relationships, proposing that the Mg/Ca selectivity of cell wall binding determines the gradient, whilst intracellular concentrations plus cell wall cation exchange capacity determines the absolute concentrations.
https://www.botany.one/2018/09/cell-wall-chemistry-determines-shoot-ca-and-mg-concentrations/

Natural genetic variation shapes root system responses to phytohormones in Arabidopsis
Here, scientists  assess variation of root traits upon treatment with auxin, cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA) in 192 Arabidopsis accessions.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tpj.14034

Phosphocode-dependent functional dichotomy of a common co-receptor in plant signaling
These results suggest a phosphocode-based dichotomy of BAK1 function in plant signalling, and provide insights into receptor kinase activation that have broad implications for our understanding of how plants respond to their changing environment.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0471-x

Multiscale imaging of plant development by light-sheet fluorescence microscopy
Here review the most important, recent biological applications of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) methods in developmental studies of established and emerging plant model species, together with up-to-date methods of data editing and evaluation for modelling of complex biological processes.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41477-018-0238-2

A protein prevents plants from premature flowering
A team has discovered that UV-B, a type of radiation that is a natural component of sunlight can be a powerful inducer of flowering, but that a protein called RUP2 blocks their action to prevent early flowering.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180927105654.htm

Genome duplication drives evolution of species
Polyploid plants have a duplicate set of chromosomes. As a result, large-scale genetic changes are therefore possible in the new species, making it more adaptable in comparison with the parental species, as has now been demonstrated by researchers using rockcress.

Plant growth-promoting bacteria enhance plant salinity tolerance
It was observed that salt stress reduced foliage photosynthetic rate, but induced foliage ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) accumulation, foliage ACC oxidase activity, and the emissions of all the major classes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, light-weight oxygenated volatiles, long-chained saturated aldehydes, benzenoids, geranylgeranyl diphosphate pathway products, and mono- and sesquiterpenes.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180919101016.htm

How plants harness microbes to get nutrients
Scientists have discovered how plants harness microbes in soil to get nutrients, a process that could be exploited to boost crop growth, fight weeds and slash the use of polluting fertilizers and herbicides.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180917111527.htm

Наночастицы оксида меди вредят ячменю
На почве и воде с такими наночастицами ячмень медленно растет и вообще чувствует себя неважно.
https://www.nkj.ru/news/34456/

Растения, как и животные, используют глутамат для быстрой передачи сигналов по организму
Японские и американские биологи показали, что глутамат играет ключевую роль в передаче сигнала от поврежденных листьев к неповрежденным у модельного растения Arabidopsis thaliana. Глутамат взаимодействует с глутаматными рецепторами, похожими на те, что используются в нервной системе животных. Это приводит к поступлению ионов Ca2+ в цитоплазму и к активации генов, обеспечивающих защитную реакцию растения. 
https://elementy.ru/novosti_nauki/433332/Rasteniya_kak_i_zhivotnye_ispolzuyut_glutamat_dlya_bystroy_peredachi_signalov_po_organizmu

A one-way street for salt
Using Chenopodium quinoa, a pseudo-cereal halophyte of great economic potential, scientists have shown previously that, upon removal of salt bladders, quinoa becomes salt sensitive.
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-09/uow-aos092018.php

Ecology of Floristic Quality Assessment: testing for correlations between coefficients of conservatism, species traits and mycorrhizal responsiveness
In a study published in AoBP, Bauer et al. tested whether there are consistent differences in life histories between species with high and low C values.
https://www.botany.one/2018/09/ecology-of-floristic-quality-assessment-testing-for-correlations-between-coefficients-of-conservatism-species-traits-and-mycorrhizal-responsiveness/

Fabrication and Use of the Dual-Flow-RootChip for the Imaging of Arabidopsis Roots in Asymmetric Microenvironments
This protocol provides a detailed description of how to fabricate and use the dual-flow-RootChip (dfRootChip), a novel microfluidic platform for investigating root nutrition, root-microbe interactions and signaling and development in controlled asymmetric conditions.
https://bio-protocol.org/e3010

Multiple C2 domains and Transmembrane region Proteins (MCTPs) tether membranes at plasmodesmata
These data suggest that MCTPs (transmembrane region protein) are unique membrane tethers controlling both ER-PM (endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane) contacts and cell-cell signalling.
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/09/23/423905    

Sodium chloride alters cadmium accumulation and metabolites in halophyte Carpobrotus rossii
Cheng et al. ran a hydroponic experiment to assess the effect of NaCl on the metabolic response to Cd and Cd accumulation in the halophytic Cd-accumulator Carpobrotus rossii (Aizoaceae).
https://www.botany.one/2018/09/sodium-chloride-alters-cadmium-accumulation-and-metabolites-in-halophyte-carpobrotus-rossii/    

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